Compose a 1250 words assignment on proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Needs to be plagiarism free! Different types of fuel used are hydrogen, methane, and gasoline. The polymer exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is a type of fuel cell that uses hydrogen as fuel. Using hydrogen, PEMFCs follow the chemical reaction below to make electricity.
First, hydrogen gets into the fuel cell via the anode. The catalyst then split the H2 molecule into H+ ions and electrons. The electrons then pass through the external circuit that lights the lamp as shown in the figure. During this process, oxygen, usually from the air, enters at the cathode. The oxygen combines with the electrons, which have completed their circuit. The oxygen then combines with H+, which leads to the formation of water (H2O) (a waste product in the fuel cell). This is how all fuel cells work, and they differ mostly in the type of electrolyte they use.
Unlike other fuel cell types, PEMFCs are excellent for transportation applications. They generate electricity at relatively low operating temperatures compared with other fuel cell types and, therefore, can be easily started up. Other fuel cells are best for stationary power generation because of extremely high operating temperature between 600 and 1000 degrees Celsius.
With all the available technology for vehicles, fuel cell electric vehicles are seen as promising because of their fuel efficiency. Traditional gasoline vehicles have a fuel efficiency of about 20%. Battery-powered electric vehicles are much higher up in fuel efficiency. Batteries in themselves have an efficiency of 90%. From electrical energy, the car still has to convert it to mechanical energy, which is also at around 80% efficient. While electric vehicles are efficient, the means of producing electricity, if generated by the power plant, only has an efficiency of 40%. Charging the car also has an efficiency of 90% when converting alternating current to direct current. Considering everything, the overall efficiency of electric vehicles is only at .about 26%. Fuel cells, when powered by pure hydrogen, are potentially 80% efficient. Like for the electric vehicle, the motor has an efficiency of 80%. .