eral anesthesia is the induction of a balanced state of unconsciousness, accompanied by the absence of pain sensation and the paralysis of skeletal muscle over the entire body. It is induced through the administration of anesthetic drugs and is used during major surgery and other invasive surgical procedures.
Stage II, or REM stage, includes uninhibited and sometimes dangerous responses to stimuli, including vomiting and uncontrolled movement. This stage is typically shortened by administering a barbiturate, such as sodium pentothal, before the anesthetic agent.
Stage III, or surgical anesthesia, is the stage in which the patients pupillary gaze is central and the pupils are constricted. This is the target depth of surgical anesthesia. During this stage, the skeletal muscles relax, the patients breathing becomes regular, and eye movements stop.
Collaborative efforts are necessary to achieve the best patient outcomes-Without collaboration, chaos occurs. Caring for patients, finding solutions to the problems of disease, and achieving outcomes that surpass the past cannot happen in isolation.
The concept of collaboration in health care is not a new concept. Luther Christman spoke about the need for physician-nurse collaboration in the early 1970s. In those days, the idea stemmed from the concept that nurses of the future would have the knowledge and abilities to meaningfully participate as true partners in the management of patient care issues, decisions, and direction. In addition, nurses would be recognized for what they contribute to patient care. Today is that future that Dr. Christman spoke about, and nurses today do have these abilities.
Physician-nurse collaboration began quietly at Rush Presbyterian-St. Lukes Medical Center in 1975. The concept of a physician and nurse working collaboratively to care for a specific population of patients emerged.