JINNAH UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN DEPARTMENT OF MASS COMMUNICATION ASSIGNMENT ON “SINDHI CULTURE AND ELECTRONIC MEDIA” COURSE TITLE: INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCES COURSE CODE: 4161/603 SUBMISSION DATE:28-02-2013 SUBMITTED TO: MISS TOOBA ZAHEER SHAIKH SUBMITTED BY: HIRA KHAN ANUM NAEEM ANUM AKHTER HUMA TARIQ SHUMAILA AMJAD RIMSHA JAWAID MINAL MOHSIN TABLE OF CONTENT Cultural traits of Sindh3 Clothing3 Autaaq3 Language and its uses 4 Arts and Crafts4 Sindhi cuisine6 Lifestyle8 Sufism in music8 Music8 Dance9 Festivals of Sindh 9 Marriages rituals9
Funeral10 Cultural day10 Projection of Sindhi culture in television programs11 Dramas11 Morning shows12 Talk shows and news channels 13 Cooking shows13 Songs13 Advertisements14 Pakistani Sindhi TV channels 14 Projection16 References17 CULTURAL TRAITS OD SINDH CLOTHING: * Sindhi dresses Shalwarkameez, Dupatta, Sherwani, Achkan, and Karakul (hat) one of the most familiar sights in Pakistan, is that traditionally, Pakistani men wear ShalwarKameez. They come in many different styles, fabrics, colors and patterns that make them look really stylish.
Pakistani women also wear Shalwarkameez no matter what province they are from. However, many women from the Sindh province wear ghagra varying from different styles and colors. Pakistani women wear an elaborate and heavily embroidered dress known as gharara on their wedding days. The Sherwani or Achkan with Karakuli hat is the national dress of Pakistan for men, as it is not specifically associated with any of the provinces. Most government officials wear the formal black Sherwani on state occasions. AUTAAQ: Otaq is mardana (drawing room) in Sindh.
As far as, , the word used in outside Sindhi origin. The man daily sits there and does gossips called ‘punchait’ and ‘jirga’, and solve problems there. LANGUAGE: Sindhi language evolved over a period of 2400 years. The language of the people of Sindh, after coming in contact with the Aryan, became Indo-Aryan (Prakrit). Sindhi language, therefore, has a solid base of Prakrit as well as Sanskrit, the language of India, with vocabulary from Arabic, Persian, and some Dravidian – descendants from Mediterranean sub-continent.
Initially, Sindhi had close contacts with Arabic- speaking Muslims. Therefore the language adopted many of the Arabic words. There are 52 alphabets in sindhi language. Sindhi language is an ancient language spoken in Pakistan and many other parts of the world. It is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by approximately 41 million people in Pakistan, and 12 million people in India; it is the second most spoken language of Pakistan, mostly spoken in the Sindh province. It is a recognized official language in Pakistan, and also an official language in India.
Government of Pakistan issues National Identity Cards to its citizens only in two languages; Sindhi and Urdu. Sindhi language is also greatly influenced by Sanskrit and about 70% of the words in Sindhi are of Sanskrit origin. Sindhi is a very rich language with a vast vocabulary; this has made it a favorite of many writers and so a lot of literature and poetry has been written in Sindhi. It has been the inspiration for Sindhi art, music, literature, culture and the way of life. The language can be written using the Devanagri or Arabic scrip. Uses of Sindhi:
It is used in conversations, as well as, government, education, media, and literacy. Sindhi is spoken by a variety of religious groups including Hindus, Muslims, Christians, and Sikhs in 19Southeast Pakistan. Sindhi is taught as a first language in all levels of school. Most Hindus speak Sindhi as a second language the majority of Sindhi speakers in India are women and older adults. ARTS AND CRAFTS The traditions of Sindhi craftwork reflect the cumulative influence of 5000 years of invaders and settlers, whose various modes of art were eventually assimilated into the culture.
The elegant floral and geometrical designs that decorate everyday objects—whether of clay, metal, wood, stone or fabric can be traced to Muslim influence. Though chiefly an agricultural and pastoral province, Sindh has a reputation for ajraks, pottery, leatherwork, carpets, textiles, and silk cloths which, in design and finish, are matchless. The chief articles produced are blankets, coarse cotton cloth (soosi), camel fittings, metalwork, and lacquered work, and enamel, gold and silver embroidery.
Hala is famous for pottery and tiles; Boobak for carpets; Nasirpur, Gambat and Thatta for cotton lungees and khes. Other popular crafts include the earthenware of Johi, the metal vessels of Shikarpur, the ralli quilt, embroidery and leather articles of Tharparkar, and the lacquered work of Kandhkot. Prehistoric finds from archaeological sites like Mohenjo-daro, engravings in various graveyards, and the architectural designs of Makli and other tombs have provided ample evidence of the people’s literary and musical traditions. Modern painting and calligraphy have also developed in recent times.
Some young trained men have taken up commercial art. Mirror work is also highlighted through Sindhi culture which is called GAJJ and aplic work and it is also very popular nowadays. Sindh has a rich heritage of traditional handicraft that has evolved over the centuries. Perhaps the most professed exposition of Sindhi culture is in the handicrafts of Hala, a town some 30 kilometers from Hyderabad. Hala’s artisans manufacture high-quality and impressively priced wooden handicrafts, textiles, paintings, handmade paper products, and blue pottery.
Lacquered wood works known as Jandi, painting on wood, tiles, and pottery known as Kashi, hand woven textiles including khadi, susi, and ajraks are synonymous with Sindhi culture preserved in Hala’s handicrafts. SINDHI CUISINE Sindhi cuisine refers to the cuisine of the Sindhi people. The daily food in most Sindhi households consists of wheat – based flat – bread (phulka) and rice accompanied by two dishes, one, gravy and one dry. Sindhi food is characterized by deep frying and some of the popular Sindhi dishes are Sindhi Curry, Sai Bhaji, Seyal Machi etc. Food is very important in Sindhi culture.
A lot of attention is given to how the food is prepared and what combinations of dishes are best. Over the years these combinations have become established and today when one mentions the combination, for example: Saibhaji Pulao, all the side dishes that go with it automatically come to mind. In this instance, fried potatoes or fried bhindi, dahi. Dodo chutney Millet-flour kneaded with spices cooked unleavened on a skillet and eaten with garlic-based mint chutney. SeyalPallo Sea-bass cooked in a base of onions and tomatoes, eaten with chapati. Very few people know how to cook it to perfection.
As this fish is rich in oil the secret of how much oil to put in the cooking of the gravy becomes important. Also, there is no gravy as such, but a well cooked and blended base. SeyalDabroti Bread or chapati cooked in a base of coriander, garlic and tomatoes. This is a breakfast food. The same can be cooked in onions and tomato as well. SeeroPuri Another breakfast, Seero is semolina cooked in butter or oil, fried on a slow fire till it turns light, golden brown, the aroma filling the house. Then, proportions of water and sugar are added, just enough to cook and sweeten the seero.
Eaten with fried puri, it is as close to heaven as one can get. That is why perhaps seero is also served as an offering in temples. Loli and yoghurt or Loli and Indian milk tea made with cardamom, this is thick unleavened bread cooked on the skillet. The wheat dough is kneaded with onions, hot green pepper, and garlic and coriander/cilantro leaves, all finely chopped. Along with salt and oil the flour is kneaded slowly into fairly stiff dough. Then rolled out to one eighth inch thickness and cooked on the skillet on a low flame.
When the loli is half done, a little oil is added to make it crisp. Lolo is the sweet version of loli. In this wheat dough only a little salt is added, but a proportion of sugar syrup is added and the flour is kneaded with ghee or butter. Then cooked on the skillet slowly, Lolos are almost a quarter or more inches thick. MalpuraChurhi? dal. Malpuras are a kind of deep fried pancakes. Milk or yoghurt, black pepper corns and sugar are added to white flour and a thick batter is made. A circular pancake is then dropped into a flat frying pan which should contain about half an inch of oil to fry in.
This sweet bread is eaten with boiled yellow mung dal in which only salt, a drop or so of oil and turmeric is added. MeethiAloo. Garlic, hot chili peppers and fresh or dry fennel leaves combine to transform the simple potato into a curry which can be eaten with chapati, puri, rice or regular bread. MutturPaneer can be made in different gravies, the chief ingredients are the peas and homemade cottage cheese. Thaynri is sweet rice, usually made on special occasions. Kheerni Thickened (by boiling) milk with Cardamoms, Saffron and a number of rich mild spices. LIFESTYLE
People of Sindh are more inclined towards an agricultural based lifestyle. The fertile Indus Plains provide a valuable source of income for the local people who practice farming on these lands. Inland fishing is also practiced along the Indus River in Upper Sind providing further opportunities for local people. Nomadic way of lifestyle is commonly seen in the deserted regions of Thar where people move from place to place in search for drinking water sources along with their animals. SUFISM IN MUSIC Sindhi society is dominated by great Sufis, the mystics and the martyrs.
It has always been the land of peace, love, romance, and great cultural and artistic values. There were the great theologians of the Naqshbandi order in Thatta who translated the fundamentals of the religion of Islam into their mother tongue. There were the great Sufi (mystic) poets like Shah Abdul LatifBhitai who was the cherisher of truth and spent all his life in its propagation, pursuit and quest. Bhitai was also an excellent musician. He invented a new type of musical instrument, Tambura (drone instrument), which till today, is a primary source of music in rural Sindh.
The beauty of Shah’s verses is enhanced by his blending of traditional Indian rag with the Sindhi folk songs and music. MUSIC * Lada: Lada songs are sung before the actual weddings, the very lilt of which suggests careless abandon and gaiety that mark a wedding. Sindhi are very famous for showmanship, and on the occasion of the marriage of the son, they will not hesitate to spend thousands of rupees only on decorations, music dance and photographs, movie and on video shootings, They call a Lada party of famous singers and enjoy the music one day before the marriage and even on Janiya (Thread ceremony) etc.
The famous Laado SONU BAJUBAND, LADO PANHIJEE KUNWAR LAI AANEDO AND DHIKH JE RAAT LADE MUNDIYOON GHARAYOON, MOOML MANA NA KAR MARUN SA, ALLA SON JO RUPAYA etc. Many other Ladas are so famous among the Sindhi that on the occasion of the marriage, specially ladies and relatives are invited on Lada ceremony where they offer the GHOR of rupees on the bride-groom whose marriage is to be performed. DANCE * CHHEJ: Chhej is performed only by men. It is somewhat similar to DoklaRas of Kathiawar, but considerably more intricate in pattern & steps and rhythmic beats. The instruments used are the SHARNAI and the DUDUL i. e. Shehnai and the drum.
Another dance which is performed only by men is DHAMAL, performed by Fakirs and disciples of a particular shrine at the time when the flag of the shrine goes up. This is a dance which is characterized by a sort of religious frenzy and has, therefore, a very fast tempo. Nagharo (a big drum) instrument provides both the rhythmic beat and the tempo for the Dhamal. FESTIVALS OF SINDH The people of Sind love their religion and the two festivals of Eid-ul-Adha and Eid-ul-Fitr are celebrated with zeal and enthusiasm. Different domestic festivals are arranged by the local people to provide people with new things they buy on Eid’s occasion.
On different occasions, the Folk dance of Bhagat is also performed by professionals to entertain the visiting people. Hence, a Sindhi Cultural Festival is a compound of folk dances, music and entertainment for local people. Marriages rituals There are several martial rituals in Sindh. These rituals are described as follows: WANWAAH: In this ritual the bride is made to sit seven days in veil wearing yellow dress. A thread is tied on the palm of the bride in which some sort of grain is placed and it is hanged on the hand of the bride. The rite of applying Henna on the groom’s palm and feet.
Wearing traditional dress that is white cotton, Ajrak, Sindhi topi. The Sindhi women used to wear heavy jewelry calledDURRI which is a necklace of seven strides. DAAWAIN: it is a martial ritual in which the sister in law tied a thread on groom from his finger of feet to the finger of his hand and receives some cash for this ritual. Another social value is to touch the feet of elders and old people to honor them this ritual is commonly followed by every Sindhi. LAOON: It is a martial ritual in which the head of the bride and groom are hit together. Funeral Rituals After death the dead body is covered by Sindhi Ajrak.
Sindhi Cultural Day (Ekta Day) Sindhi celebrate Sindh Cultural day worldwide every year during the month of December by wearing Ajrak&Sindhi Topi on that occasion. The musical programs and rallies are held in many cities to mark the day with zeal. Major hallmarks of cities and towns are decorated with Sindhi Ajrak to highlight the cultural values of Sindh. The people across Sindh exchange gifts of Ajrak and Topi at various ceremonies. Even, the children and women are dressed up in Ajrak, assembling at the grand gathering, where famous Sindhi singers sing Sindhi songs, which depicts love and progress of Sindh.
The musical performances of the artists compel the participants to dance on Sindhi tunes and ‘Jeay Sindh Jeay-Sindh Wara Jean’. All Political, social and religious organizations of Sindh, besides the Sindh culture department and administrations of various schools, colleges and universities, organize variety of events including seminars, debates, folk music programmes, drama and theatrics performances, tableau and literary sittings to mark this annual festivity. Sindhi culture, history and heritage are highlighted at the events.
Ekta (Unity) day is observed to display solidarity among the Sindhi-speaking masses, the event is celebrated not only in Karachi, but throughout Sindh. The province’s culture and unity day was celebrated for the first time on December 6, 2009 (as the Sindhi Topi Day) as a backlash to the comments of anchorman DrShahidMasood who had criticised President Asif Ali Zardari for wearing a Sindhi cap on his foreign tours. People across the Sindh province condemned Masood’s comments via SMS, which ultimately resulted in the announcement of celebrating the Sindhi Topi Day.
FEUDALISM IN SINDH The feudal archetype in Pakistan consists of landlords with large joint families possessing hundreds or even thousands of acres of land. They seldom make any direct contribution to agricultural production. Instead, all work is done by peasants or tenants who live at subsistence level. In Pakistan’s remote areas of Sind and Baluchistan province, one “periodically run[s] into vast estates sometimes even operates a private prison in which enemies are placed, and sometimes makes local people dependent through debt bondage, generation after generation. “The landlord, by virtue of his ownership and control of such vast amounts of land and human resources, is powerful enough to influence the distribution of water, fertilizers, tractor permits and agricultural credit and, consequently exercises considerable influence over the revenue, police and judicial administration of the area. But this is not the scene all over the Pakistan. Most urban Sind there no longer exists the agricultural feudal as harsh as it is described in the earlier lines this situation only exists in rural Sindh. PROJECTION OF SINDHI CULTURE ON TELEVISION PROGRAMMES
DRAMAS A telefilm is broadcasted on the channel HUM TV named as SACHAL AUR SABRINA. The name of the telefilm is also reflecting that it is a Sindhi drama, because these names are commonly used in Sindh. The Sindhi cultural traits which are highlighted in this drama is the usage of Sindhi language by the cast of the drama, dresses in this drama are usually TOPI, AJRAK, womenwearing aplicand mirror work dresses and covered their heads. This drama also focuses on highlighting social values of Sindhi culture that is to touch the feet of the elders and old people to honor them.
The drama also stress towards the marriage rituals of Sindhi culture like using JHULA for the sitting of bride and groom, bride and other women prone heavy jewelry like DURRI a heavy necklace and the traditions of full white color bangles, the rite of applying Henna on the groom’s palm and feet, a thread is tied on the palm of the bride in which some sort of grain is placed and it is hanged on the hand of the bride, the sister in law tied a thread on groom from his finger of feet to the finger of his hand and receives some cash for this ritual it is called DAAWAN and the head of the bride and groom are hit together which is called LAOON.
The drama is totally based on the culture of Sindh. Another drama is also broadcasted on ARY DIGITAL named as MERA SAEEN, SAEEN is basically a Sindhi word usually used to respect their feudal lords. Feudalism is very much common in lower Sindh and now it is becoming the part of Sindhi culture. The tagline of the drama is Evil Never Truly Dies It Is Simply Born Again. This drama reflects the concept of feudal lords and their worships and story revolves around the power or authority and the control of the political party. HATHE GULA MEHANDI Sindhi culture has been shown in this drama, Sindhi marriages and customs has also shown.
First put the ubtan on bride by her in laws. Both the groom and bride offers nafil at their wedding and both are tied up with dupatta which is hanged on groom’s shoulders. NATAK RANG This is comedy play in which Sindhi bethak has shown, and the people of the area share their problems, issues and humor with each other. Bethak (otak) is an important part of Sindhi culture. HASAR-E-ISHQ Married women have been prominent in the serial which is called Wadairan. According to Sindhi culture they use to wear gold jewelry and she oppressed on their lowers. According to their culture Wadairy gets first marriage in family and others from out of family.
All these things are shown in this drama. MORNING SHOWS A cultural week is celebrated on the morning show UTHO JAAGO PAKISTAN at HUM TV in which they focuses on the cultural traits of all the provinces of Pakistan. On the first day of the show they highlighted the cultural traits of Sindh. The set of the show is designed to highlight the culture of Sindh. Handicrafts like rallies, aplic work and mirror work hangings are dangled on the walls of the set. The host and guests were wearing Sindhi TOPI and AJRAK. The host of the program was speaking Sindhi language.
Sindhi songs and music were also playing as background music. There were also stalls on the set in which the cook was making Sindhi cuisine. The motive is to highlight the culture and qualities of Sindhi people. AbidaPerveen is the guest of the program who is also an asset of Sufism in Sindhi culture. Different Sindhi Qalaams and folk songs also sang on the program by the guest. The overall culture is presented on that program. Maham Amir is hosting the very famous Sindhi Morning show program Salam Sindh on Sindh TV news. The Show is divided in to many interesting segments in which food and other segments features.
Many of the Sindhi Celebs, actors, singer, actors and artist have been already invited in the Show in which they have discussed their life experiences etc. NaziaJaved is the famous host of the Sindhi morning show RoshanSubho. She is hosting this program for about a year. This program is although in Sindhi but this is famous in all the urban area of Pakistan. The show has featured many celebs actors, singers, politicians and people from different walks of life but most of them were Sindhi who were invited in the show. The target of audience of the show is Sindhi people.
Unlike other morning show uthojago Pakistan of geo, good morning Pakistan, SubahSaveraySamaaKeSaath with SanamBaloch, This show is low profile among the morning shows but it is liked and viewed by Sindhi people. TALK SHOWS AND NEWS CHANNELS BNN Where Sindhi culture is seen in dramas and songs, it also exhibits in a show Banana News Network. BNN is one of the most liking satire shows. Matku is a character in this show that interviews celebrities in a Sindhi get up. He wears long most aches and Sindhi topi. Although he dressed himself in suit but his accent and topi clearly exhibit the Sindhi culture.
Matku does not imitate someone, he just represent himself as Sindhi in interviews. NEWS CHANNELS Sindhi cultural which was recently celebrated on 22nd march, 2012, have been broadcasted in news channels. Every year Sindhi cultural day is widely seen in news channels which report cultural shows, from every corner of the country. On this day we can see in news almost all the cultural shows being celebrated in educational institutes and exhibitions in the country. The news channels also play a part in promoting important cultural events and festivals of Sindh and make special packages and coverage to such events.
COOKING SHOWS The culture of Sindh is also highlighting on the cooking shows on specific episodes at MASALA TV and ARY ZAUQ. Their motive is to present the cuisine of Sindhi culture and the sets are designed in such a way that reflects Sindhi dresses and promote the culture. Such sort of program includes HANDI, [email protected], TARKA and BILLO DA DHABA etc. SONGS Nowadays Sindhi language and Sindhi words are very much used in songs. For instance the song SAEEN TO SAEEN by ALI GUL PIR, in which he highlighted the feudal lords and the concept of feudalism in Sindh. Sindhi culture and dressing is shown in his song .
Boys wearing shalwarkameez with “ajrak” and “sindhitopi “and girls wearing “Sindhi embroidery dresses. His song TAARO MAARO is also consists of Sindhi words like MAARO which is used in Sindhi language for calling a person or wise man. ADVERTISMENTS This advertisement highlights Sindhi language. And the dresses of Sindhi culture like AJRAK. Through this advertisement the Sindhi culture also promotes. This advertisement promotes Sindhi language and dresses. Men wear AJRAKand Sindhi TOPI with SHALWAR KAMEEZ and women wear AJRAK they show people sitting on CHAARPAYIS which is fully covered with Sindhi RAILLI.
Both advertisements broadcast on KTN, AWAAZ TV and SINDH NEWS. PAKISTANI SINDHI TV CHANNELS AWAZ TV: Awaz TV is a Sindhi Language Television channel with headquarters based in Karachi, Pakistan. It was launched in 2009 and broadcasts entertainment and infotainment programs in Sindhi. Awaz TV is available via satellite on Asia Sat 3S as well as on cable operators all around the country. KASHISH TV: Kashish Television Network (K TV) is the first private Sindhi Music TV channel. This is the second channel of Kawish group. The channel was founded by Ali Kazi who is the owner of the most popular Sindhi newspaper Daily Kawish.
Kashish is very popular among Sindhis by means of Sindhi music. KTN AND KTN NEWS ————————————————- ————————————————- Kawish Television Network (KTN) is the first private Sindhi TV channel of Pakistan. It is the most watched private Sindhi-language channel based general entertainment television channel worldwide. The channel is part of the Kawish Television Network’s bouquet of channels. ————————————————- KTN was established in 2002 and started with 6 hours of transmission.
It has now grown from a small regional-language channel to the leading Satellite Channel of Pakistan, broadcasting 24 hours a day to areas of South Asia, Middle and Far East Asia. It also started the first ever music channel in Sindhi language KASHISH TV, after that in October 2007 KTN News was also aired, covering news, current affair programs, talk show, documentaries and reports. KTN is a family channel with and major programming primarily consists of family dramas and other shows targeted to the entire family. KTN has shown for every member of the family with subjects like music, games, films etc.
KTN also runs news bulletins every hour. KTN is amongst Pakistan’s top 3 cable channels and is in the league of other biggies like ARY and GEO TV. MEHRAN TV: ????? is the first Sindhi-language TV channel which is broadcasting from Hyderabad. MTN broadcasts variety of entertainment programs, music, dramas, news, and movies in the Sindhi Language. SINDH TV: Sindh Television (STV) is a leading private television channel of Sindhi language in Sindh, Pakistan. Sindh TV is owned by Dolphin Media House, which also owns another channel in Sindhi language called Sindh TV News SINDH TV NEWS
Sindh TV News channel covers news and current affairs, airs 24 hours round the clock news and current affair programs. PROJECTION: Basically all Sindhi channels have the motive to promote their culture and traditions and these channels are highly liked by the Sindhi people. They promote Sindhi language, Sindhi dresses, their martial rituals, custom and traditions. The policies of these channels are set to highlight and promote all the cultural traits of Sindh. Sindhi media groups have started to celebrate the day as ‘Sindhi Cultural Day’ or ‘Ekta day’.
The Sindhi language TV channels including KTN, Sindh TV, Awaz TV and Mehran TV broadcast special programs on the culture of Sindh , besides these media outlets separately arrange the mega musical events, which also attract large audience to celebrate the Culture Day every year. REFERENCES http://pakistanthinktank. org/component/k2/item/714-pakistans-cultural-diversity-sindhi-culture-sindh-history 12 www. jhulelal. com http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=SbKvb9WR1KE http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=b0hWvct1FNE – Sindhi Lada http://www. newgirlsdresses. com/summer-dresses/sindhi-embroidery-dresses. tm – Website to purchase http://www. lmp. ucla. edu/Profile. aspx? LangID=201&menu=004http://www. sindh. gov. pk/dpt/history%20of%20sindh/culture. htm htt://pwww. dramasonline. com/jago-pakistan-jago-12th-february-2013-abida-parveen/ http://www. tvkahani. com/reviews-mera-saaein-2-ary-full-drama-review/ http://www. aiou. edu. pk/gmj/artical4. asp http://www. vidjin. com/ali-gul-pir-taroo-maroo. html http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Sindh#Arts_and_crafts http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Feudalism_in_Pakistan http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Culture_of_Sindh#Sindhi_Cultural_Day_. 28Ekta_Day. 29