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Appropriateness of referral from General Practitioners and requirement of Ear, Nose and Throat follow up. It needs to be at least 5000 words. The pathology of hearing, and look at assessing how general practitioners consider the importance of getting a patients hearing assessed and whether the referral from them is appropriate.

The ear is sensory organ that detects sounds. The range of hearing is differentiates from species to another. Dogs are able to use their keen sense of hearing to hear minute disturbances within its atmosphere. A bat, whose auditory ability exceeds greatly in comparison to a dog, uses their ears to fly in the dark and avoid obstacles that it unable to perceive via vision. In general, the human ear is structured accordingly so that we can be aware of our surroundings acoustically. The ear is classified into three basic structures. That is, the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear assemble the essential sub-organ components to hearing. The outer ear is the exterior component of the ear which coax sounds waves into the ear. It is composed of the auricle, the ear canal, and the tympanic membrane known today as the eardrum. In animals, the auricle possesses skeletal muscles that move to ear a distinct sounds. For humans, to focus on a particular sound requires a mental honing of neurological circuits of the central nervous systems. Then, the sounds travel through the ear canal and meet the tympanic membrane. (www.wikipedia.com)

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After tympanic membrane, the middle ear structures appear. They are composed of three bones which are technically called ossicles. These bones consist of the hammer, anvil, and stapes or generically called malleus, incus, and stirrup. The malleus which is connected to the eardrum reverberates the sound it receives to the incus. Then the incus transfers its vibrations to the oval window in the cochlear. In humans and other land animals, the middle ear is normally filled with air. Unlike the open ear canal, however, the air of the middle ear is not in direct contact with the atmosphere outside the body.

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