It needs to be at least 1750 words. The main risk associated with circumcision is primarily credited to the surgical procedure itself. In a study conducted in the University of Washington, the authors were able to establish that out of 130,000 boys who had circumcisions at the Washington state hospital, 287 of them developed complications in relation to the procedure. The most common complications seen were intraoperative bleeding (230 cases) and damage to the penis (52 cases). The authors comment however that these are preventable risks which would still be outweighed by the benefits of circumcision. Most of the complications associated with circumcision are minor and are very much localized. Meatal stenosis is seen in circumcised males and is said to follow intraoperative vascular injury to the frenular vessels. Due to meatal stenosis, there may be a deflection of the urine system or in some cases. dysuria and occult hematuria may also be seen in the circumcised male. Reports of skin bridges forming when separated foreskin come in contact with each other are sometimes also manifest in circumcised males, and this can cause pain and penile curvature during erection.
Before the advent of improved anesthesia options, the neonatal pain experience has been emphasized as one of the main objections against circumcision. The pain experience is known to cause physiological responses, such as increased heart rate, respiratory rate, and serum cortisol level, lower serum oxygen saturation and lower vagal tone.