Organizational Theory. It needs to be at least 2000 words. Also, the paper will review the criticisms that have been generated towards the two assumptions.
While ontology is associated with the nature of an event, epistemology is about the way people understand such an event (Gioia, 2003). The classification of the two assumptions, therefore, can be based on an individual’s belief considering that objective existence is inherent in the world, or because the reality of an event is based on a mediated social understanding. In this sense, prior to human judgement, objective ontology presumes that natural and social reality occurs independently (Johnson and Duberley, 2000: 180). In view of this assumption, objective epistemology takes into consideration the causal inter variable relationships, and assumes that the reality does not originate in an individual, but rather from sensory experiences. Having said this, the manner in which an individual understands an event is acquired from measurement, touch, taste, or observation (Johnson and Duberley, 2000). Furthermore, the epistemology of objectivity seeks to generalize theories by making a very important presumption that the theory applies to all people in the world regardless of the context and circumstances. A good example of a research that best shows a theory-approach alignment is one conducted in by Cooper and Sobol (1969) investigating seniority and employment testing as a criteria for hiring and promoting employees. In this paper, the theory being used is the disparate impact theory while the approach is basically a case study complex, while epistemology is constructionism coupled with positivism. By analyzing the various cases where the use of seniority and testing were deemed to be violating the fair employment laws, Cooper and Sobol (1969) went on to suggest that depending on who is analyzing the cases may take different meanings because of their constructionist approach.