Rituals of Islam.

Observance of prayer (salat) five times a day is compulsory upon Muslims. The names of the obligatory prayers are fajr, zuhr, asr, maghrib and isha. Basically, it consists of recitations from the Holy Quran and glorification of Allah accompanied by various postures, through which Muslims express submission, adoration, and humility to Allah. It is compulsory that a person’s body, clothes, and place of worship must be clean before offering prayers. In addition, Kiblah must be faced, certain body parts (satar) must be covered, and the intention (niyat) must be declared before offering prayer. Prayer serves myriad purposes such as teaching self-discipline that is required to perform prayer regularly and at proper times, to perform ablution that precedes prayer. Prayer is the central point of the life of a Muslim, which enables him to maintain a strong link with their Lord or continue his inner struggle against temptation. These aspects remind a Muslims of the limited and temporary nature of this worldly life and the certainty of death and life to come. Thus, it enables a Muslim to maintain a balance between the needs and claims of this life and the Hereafter (Brockopp 156).

Though congregational prayers are considered more meritorious for Muslims. however, there is no barrier to praying singly. Similarly, like Islamic prayers, concentration (kavanah), and a mindset that one is conversing with God is a pre-requisite for Jewish prayers. Jews believe that daily prayers direct their soul, heart, and mind away from everyday matters towards God. It reminds them of their core beliefs and intensifies their bond with God. Thus, the fundamental purposes and significance of prayers in Islam and Judaism are the same.

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