I will pay for the following article Sound Production Treatments. The work is to be 8 pages with three to five sources, with in-text citations and a reference page. The Kaufman Speech Praxis Treatment Kit has been used for treating children with apraxia of speech (Kaufman Children’s center, n.d).
Wambaugh & Doyle, 1994, made a review of 28 treatment reports over the past 20 years. Positive results were noted with the following treatments: flexible treatment hierarchy combined with home programs. combination of sound placement, sound drill, and graphic stimulation. metronome pacing accompanying drill of all behaviors. package modeling, integral stimulation, phonetic placement, multiple repetitions. PROMPT system and integral stimulation. and PROMPT motokinesthetic stimulation with some rate control. The majority of subjects were chronic apraxic speakers, with 62% being 6 months post-onset.
Currently, although most treatments have reported good results, most current AOS treatments have limited data to support their use, and there is a lack of replication of treatment findings (Wambaugh, 2002). Another limitation is the lack of measurement of generalization and maintenance effects of treatment (Wambaugh et al., 1998).
Chumpelik is credited for developing the PROMPT (Prompts for Restructuring Oral and Muscular Phonetic Targets) system in 1984. This is a tactile-kinesthetic based treatment method, originally developed for the treatment of children with developmental motor speech disorders. later, it was modified for use in adults with motor speech disorders (Bose et al., 2001)
Prompts are applied to the mylohyoid muscle, facial musculature, and mandibular manipulation. Some or all of the following parameters receive input from PROMPTs: spatial .targeting for place and sometimes the manner of production, degree of a mandibular excursion, protrusion or retraction of facial muscles, the number of speech muscles required to contract and relative segment and syllable duration. .