The Nuclear Changes Characteristics of Papillary Carcinoma.

I will pay for the following article The Nuclear Changes Characteristics of Papillary Carcinoma. The work is to be 5 pages with three to five sources, with in-text citations and a reference page. Pathological features include papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma. Papillary carcinoma is an encapsulated tumor with papillary and follicular structures characterized by overlapping cell nuclei with a ground-glass appearance and longitudinal grooves with invaginations of cytoplasm into the nuclei. Follicular carcinoma by follicular differentiation but without the characteristics of the nuclear changes of papillary carcinoma (Rego-Iraeta, Pérez-Méndez, Mantinan, & Garcia-Mayor, 2009).

The first symptom is usually lymph-node metastases. Other symptoms include hoarseness, dysphagia, cough, and shortness of breath in the advanced stage. The carcinoma is usually single and firm and moves freely during swallowing on physical examination. If the thyroid nodule is hard and irregular, and the ipsilateral lymph nodes are enlarged. There is a history of progressive increase in the size of the nodule. carcinoma should be suspected. The best method for distinguishing between malignant and benign thyroid nodules is fine-needle aspiration cytology. Thyroid ultrasonography is useful for assessing the nodule’s size, detecting other nodules, and guiding fine needle biopsy if a nodule is difficult to palpate or small (Rego-Iraeta, Pérez-Méndez, Mantinan, & Garcia-Mayor, 2009).

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Surgery can remove the tumor from the neck by resecting the affected thyroid gland and affected cervical lymph nodes. Other treatments include Iodine-131 therapy and external radiotherapy. Follow-up should be done to maintain adequate thyroxin therapy and detect persistent or recurrent thyroid carcinoma (Schlumberger, 2000).

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure levels of five serum proteins as formerly shown to be up-regulated in papillary thyroid cancer, that is, angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), cytokeratin 19 (CK-19) tissue inhibitor of&nbsp.metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), galectin-3, and chitinase 3 like-1 (YKL-40).

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