Write a 5 pages paper on intermolecular attraction forces. When bonds between particles are made more polar, the particle charges increase resulting in stronger intermolecular forces which lead to high melting and boiling points.
In chemistry, there are four types of intermolecular attractive forces. They include ionic forces, hydrogen bonding, dipole forces, and London Dispersion forces. The attractive forces tend to be similar to the type of bonding particles within a molecule. The intermolecular forces, therefore, follow the patterns of the type of bonding between molecules. In addition, the nature of intermolecular attractive forces between molecules creates the difference between gasses, liquids, and solids (Bettelheim et al. 152).
Ionic forces are the strongest attractive forces among the intermolecular forces. They are referred to as electrostatic forces and hold ions in solids together. The forces are due to cationic charges where unlike charges attract each other, and unlike charges repel. Ionic compounds form due to the interaction between negative and positive ions like in sodium chloride salt. Cations are usually metals and examples are Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ while anions are non-metals and include Cl-, Br-, O-, and F-.
The balance between the force of attraction of both cation and anion results in the formation of the ionic bond. Lattice energy forms when there is a balance between the force attractions within crystalline compounds. In ionic intermolecular attractive force, there is a complete transfer of electrons from metals to non-metals where metals become positively charged while non-metals are negatively charged. Metals have a tendency to lose electrons because they have few electrons in the outermost energy level. Ionization energy is spent to remove electrons and form ions (Bettelheim et al. 154). However, non-metals have a high affinity for electrons hence they gain electrons to form anions. The charge difference determines the strength of the attractive force. The attraction force is stronger when the charge difference is greater. Below is an example of an ionic force of attraction between sodium and chlorine.