Your assignment is to prepare and submit a paper on helicobacter pylori.

Your assignment is to prepare and submit a paper on helicobacter pylori. Spiral shape and the presence of flagella. Helicobacter pylori spiral shape is well adapted to the movement inside the vicious gastric mucus layer that allows the microorganism to completely colonize the mucosa. Furthermore, the presence of coated flagella allows bacteria to move fast in the gastric juice as well as in the mucus (Marshall).

Adaptation enzymes. Helicobacter pylori produce two main adaptation enzymes – urease and catalase. The urease is contained in gastric juice and catalyzes urea into carbon dioxide (CO2) and ammonium ion (NH4+), which further neutralizes the pH of the immediate environment of the microbe and protects Helicobacter pylori against bactericidal action of gastric acid. Thus, the microorganism preserved in gastric juice penetrates into the protective layer of mucus on the surface of the gastric epithelium.

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The secretion of catalase and possibly superoxide dismutase allows Helicobacter pylori to suppress the immune response of the host (Kalali et al.). These enzymes catalyze the transformation of compounds of bactericidal oxygen (which are released by activated neutrophils) into harmless substances such as oxygen and water.

Adhesivity. The ability of&nbsp.Helicobacter pylori&nbsp.to attach specific oligosaccharide components of glycoproteins and phospholipids in the membranes of gastric epithelial cells determines its selective colonization of mucus-secreting cells. In those places where the bacterial cell membranes are adjacent to each other, the disruption of microvilli and the rupture of components of the cytoskeleton are observed (Kelly). Other possible binding receptors can be extracellular matrix components, such as laminin, fibronectin and various types of collagen. It is believed that only a very small amount of the microorganisms (less than 10%) existing in the stomach is bound at any particular time.&nbsp.

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